A major issue omnipresent in all COP negotiations is the question of means of implementation – finance, technology transfer and capacity building. The question of means of implementation is rooted in the equity of approach premise that rich countries should assist poorer countries to transition their economies to climate friendly production technologies as well as provide assistance to cope with the lived impacts of climate change on economies and livelihoods. However, the mean of implementation question has remained unresolved in the progression of the global climate governance framework. Various funds have been created to support climate mitigation and adaptation initiatives. But such funds have remained un or under resourced. Where pledges have materialized, complicated procedures have been put in place to access them, with the result that those countries with the least capacity to adapt to climate change also need the most capacity support to access the available climate funds. Major initiatives such as the African Group Renewable Energy Development Initiative have remained in -operational due to lack of adequate financing.
Debate is required to demonstrate the effectiveness or otherwise of existing means of implementation, and to explore alternatives at global and national levels. Innovative approaches to mobilizing domestic resources for climate response are beginning to emerge in some African countries. There is a need to explore these innovations and inform other African countries of alternative climate finance strategies. Thus a key question to be addressed in the Paris framework is how can the global climate ambition be reflected in resource mobilization for climate finance? How can nations develop alternative and innovative mechanisms to finance climate initiatives?
A linked issue is the need for a global strategy to address loss and damage from climate change. Loss and damage will be a core debate in Paris, and as with the other means of implementation, it appears that the dominant narrative is for market based systems to address loss and damage.
Similarly, capacity building and Technology transfer are contentious issues.